first_imgThe Alliance-McKay Security Kingston and St Andrew Football Association (KSAFA) Under-20 competition, which was won by Waterhouse FC last year, is set to get under way tomorrow.Alliance Finance, which has been supporting KSAFA since 1996, handed over a cheque worth $1 million as title sponsor.The other title sponsor, McKay Security, contributed $600,000. Western Sports will contribute a set of gear to each participating team for an overall value of $825,000.Also, former Reggae Boyz striker Khari Stephenson, whose father, Stewart, is the head of KSAFA, has donated three pairs of boots to be presented to the Most Valuable Player, Leading Goalscorer, and Best Defender at the completion of the competition.RJR Group and KLAS-ESPN Sports Radio will broadcast the games from the quarter-final stage.Stewart Stephenson said he is grateful to the sponsors for their support.”This cannot cover the cost of what the clubs need to prepare for competition, but we have done our best,” Stephenson said.Both title sponsors say they are committed to the development of the sport.”Due to the success last year, we are pleased to continue sponsorship of the Under-20 competition in KSAFA,” Arnie Francis, Alliance Finance’s general manager, disclosed.”This competition provides an avenue for the players in their development. We are very passionate about what we do. This is a very good competition,” Francis added.Rodney McPherson, McKay Security’s special projects manager, said: “It is good to be associated with this competition for another year. Our contribution is also part of our outreach programme.”KSAFA Competitions Chairman Marc Williams said the competition – whose first-round fixtures were not confirmed at the press conference – serves as a critical part in the development of players.”To have registered 31 of 33 clubs from KSAFA is a testimony of its importance,” Williams shared.The teams will play in four zones based on their geography. At the completion of the group stage, the top two teams from each zone will advance to the knockout stage.The champion team will receive $50,000 and the trophy; the beaten finalist is guaranteed $40,000, while the third- and fourth-place teams will earn $30,000 and $20,000, respectively.last_img read more

first_img The mechanisms underlying rhythmogenesis and large-scale patterning — for example, left–right alternation of body wall muscles in vertebrate swimming, stance-swing alternation of flexor and extensor muscles in stepping — have thus been elucidated in many model systems. It is important, however, to stress that the fine patterning and coordination of individual muscle groups within single cycles — for example, the dorsal fins in lamprey swimming, the precise timing of extensor muscles in single extensions during stepping — are less understood. Nose codes:  One of the most complex of our senses is the sense of smell – the olfactory sense.  The reason is that the nose has to be able to sort through an almost infinite variety of odorants, identify those of interest, and communicate that information to the brain for the appropriate response.  Olfactory organs are often highly sensitive.  Insects have incredible sensitivity to certain odorant molecules, such as pheromones and nectars.  Higher animals such as dogs and bears are also renowned for their ability to detect and memorize scents.  What scientists did not realize till recent years is that olfactory organs perform their magic by means of codes. It’s easier to study olfaction in insects, so that is what biologists have studied most (see “Nose Knows More than Math Pros Suppose,” 06/26/2005).  Undoubtedly, olfaction in vertebrates is much more complex, but functionally equivalent organs and processes in mammals have been identified.  Gupta and Stopfer, writing in Current Biology,1 used the word code twice in their headline: “Olfactory Coding: Giant Inhibitory Neuron Governs Sparse Odor Codes.”  They wrote about how odor information is encoded at several stages on the way from receptor to brain.  The method is remarkable, as they summarized in their opening paragraph: Brain mechanisms have evolved to gather and organize sensory information. This information does not flow passively from the outer environment through neural circuits, coming to rest as memories or actions. Rather, information is encoded, processed, and dramatically transformed in myriad ways as it travels through the brain, providing multiple advantages to the animal. For example, in many species and brain areas, sensory stimuli elicit dense bursts of action potentials from neurons in peripheral structures, but sparser firing in more central structures. Olfactory coding condenses initial bursts of odor information into manageable categories.  The pattern of initial bursts of peripheral neurons called Kenyon cells causes characteristic responses in the central structures, as if to sort responses by type.  It would be as if a dozen different signals from a flagman could trigger a single danger response.  But what happens is much more complex, with feedback and feed-forward signaling between the organs.  In addition, the information-compacting central structures respond differently if the incoming signals are synchronized.  The central structures appear tuned like a compressor-limiter to require thresholds before passing the information forward. Gupta and Stopfer reported that recently a giant neuron named GGN with “enormous, sweeping arborizations in the input and the output areas” appears to play a big role in information compression in insect olfaction.  This neuron takes input from every Kenyon cell, processes it like a computer, and can then inhibit the inputs.  According to the study, this giant neuron “responded to all tested odors with graded potentials that increased in amplitude along with the concentration of the odor.”  As a result, discrete inputs (molecules), by passing through the layers of information density and compression, yield a continuous output while simultaneously regulating further inputs.  In addition, another neuron tunes the giant neuron’s effectiveness, which in turn can be inhibited by the giant neuron.  Gupta and Stopfer said it’s like the input neurons turn a dial, another neuron regulates the dial’s sensitivity, and the GGN neuron, like a central processor, can choose what to do with the information and control the upstream inputs. In their final paragraph, Gupta and Stopfer said that these insect studies are shedding light on vertebrate olfaction.  Using language that sounds like electronic engineering, they could only refer to evolution in a negative sense (“evolutionarily conserved” means unevolved): The discovery of GGN’s powerful effect on Kenyon cells will reshape our understanding of olfactory coding in higher brain regions. How it works in the context of other sparsening mechanisms, such as the feed-forward inhibition pathway mediated by the lateral horn, will be interesting to determine . Combinations of feed-forward and feed-back inhibition have been observed in the vertebrate olfactory system: Stokes and Isaacson recently showed that a feed-forward inhibition mechanism acts immediately upon stimulus onset, and a feed-back inhibition mechanism contributes more slowly, in slices of the piriform cortex, a brain region in many ways analogous to the invertebrate mushroom bodies. And, in Drosophila, Papadopoulou et al. recorded from the APL, a neuron similar in structure to GGN, and found that the two neurons are functionally equivalent. Thus, global normalization mechanisms for maintaining sparse olfactory codes appear to be common. The relatively simple nervous systems of insects will no doubt continue to pave the way for unraveling the evolutionarily conserved mysteries of olfaction. Gupta and Stopfer, “Olfactory Coding: Giant Inhibitory Neuron Governs Sparse Odor Codes,” Current Biology, Volume 21, Issue 13, R504-R506, 12 July 2011. Move it:  How do we move?  Watch sprinters running down a track, weightlifters hoisting massive barbells, divers twisting in mid-air.  Obviously the central nervous system (CNS) is involved along with muscles.  A hint of the complexity in simple everyday movements can be gleaned from excerpts of a review in Current Biology by German and Swedish researchers.3  Once again, whatever we know is just the tip of an iceberg: Tubes constructed from single-layered sheets of epithelial cells (which line body surfaces and cavities) provide the structural basis for many internal organs. These tubes assume diverse forms, from the 25-foot-long, highly coiled intestine, to the elaborate branched networks of the lung and kidney. Even the brain and heart arise from simple epithelial tubes. Each tube must attain the precise length and diameter required for its physiological function, and creating tubes that bend, coil, branch, or twist requires additional regulatory mechanisms or modes of cellular force production. A major challenge for developmental biologists studying organ formation in the embryo, and for tissue engineers who aspire to build organs in the lab, is to understand how the molecular-level control of subcellular forces leads to tissue-level control of epithelial tube size and shape.  Two papers in this issue … address this challenge. They provide new insight into the cellular processes that make the right tube to fit the job. The first paper, attempting to figure out how airway tubes branch, described growth factors that determine the axis of cell division, giving preference to the long axis.  But these factors are regulated by complex feedback loops that govern their actions, turning them on and off at the proper times.  The second paper tried to figure out how tubes twist.  Again, growth factors were identified that preferentially push daughter cells in certain directions, but there were other factors that could cause bending of individual cells and tissues without cell division. It is clear that the researchers are barely beginning to understand tube formation.  The meager hypotheses in the two papers leave many questions unanswered: such as how a flat sheet of epithelium curves and joins into a tube; how the tube diameter and thickness are controlled; and how all the accessory cells such as sensors, blood vessels and nerves and other organs find their proper locations in and around the tube.  Giving a phenomenon a name like “morphogenesis” is not the same as understanding it.  The authors know that; “These studies signal a growing trend in which classical molecular and genetic approaches merge with quantitative microscopy, image analysis, and modeling to provide new insights into the cellular dynamics of tissue morphogenesis,” they boasted, quickly adding a reality check: “It is likely, however, that we are seeing just the tip of an iceberg.” From genes to tubes:  We have lots of tubes in our bodies: blood vessels, intestines, airways, ducts.  How can a genetic code take dividing cells and build them into tubular structures?  This question was asked in Science this week.2   Sally Horne-Badovinac and Edwin Munro from the University of Chicago described the problem: A major challenge for neuroscience is to determine how central nervous system (CNS) activity is causally related to behaviour. Motor behaviours are generated by task-specific CNS neural networks. Sally Horne-Badovinac and Edwin Munro, “Developmental Biology: Tubular Transformations,” Science 15 July 2011: Vol. 333 no. 6040 pp. 294-295, DOI: 10.1126/science.1209687. Motor behaviour results from information processing across multiple neural networks acting at all levels from initial selection of the behaviour to its final generation. Understanding how motor behaviour is produced requires identifying the constituent neurons of these networks, their cellular properties, and their pattern of synaptic connectivity. These brief looks at just three aspects of body language – olfaction, development and movement – illustrate how scientists find layers of complexity wherever they look.  Now add the endocrine system, digestion, reproduction, circulation, the skeletal system, the sensory organs, and all the other systems, package them all in skin and operate everything with a three-pound brain that runs on potatoes, and you begin to fathom the wonder that is you. Your body is speaking to scientists.  Some of them hear it saying evolution.  Others think it says intelligent design.  What characteristics would each side expect?  Most people intuitively know design when they see it.  Here are three recent scientific papers that may help interpret body language. Movements are produced by multiple neural networks, including high-level networks that ‘decide’ if movement is appropriate, those that determine the general characteristics of the movement (for example, direction, limb or body velocity), and the (often segmental) neural networks that generate the detailed motor neuron activity that drives the locomotor organs (typically muscles). Buschges, Scholz and El Manira, “New Moves in Motor Control,”  Current Biology, Volume 21, Issue 13, R513-R524, 12 July 2011. These papers present, once again, a pattern we find often in scientific papers: the more detail, the less evolution talk.  Only one of the three papers even mentioned evolution, and that instance was pathetic: “Brain mechanisms have evolved to gather and organize sensory information.”  That was the opening sacrifice to Charlie in the olfaction paper.  Ask yourself; did that little piece of worldview self-affirmation provide any understanding to the subject matter?  The whole rest of the paper, for crying out loud, was about codes, mechanisms, fine-tuning, signal processing and layers of information.  Those are the same authors who provided that other Darwin gem in their last sentence: “The relatively simple nervous systems of insects will no doubt continue to pave the way for unraveling the evolutionarily conserved [i.e., unevolved] mysteries of olfaction.”  That was it.  Those were the only two mentions of evolution in these three amazing papers.  Darwinists, if you can’t do better than stating your dogmas as bookends to papers that scream intelligent design, don’t be surprised when growing numbers of people find Charlie’s little myth unconvincing.  The rest of us, hopefully, were inspired to thanksgiving, if not worship, for the unfathomable treasures we have been given for our earthly dwellings.  Appreciating the design inside of you might just motivate you to take better care of your dwelling (see Science Daily and Psalm 139).(Visited 9 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Crop conditions varied widely across the state, due to delays in planting, replanting, and emergence issues throughout the 2017 season, according to Cheryl Turner, Ohio State Statistician for the USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service. Heavy rains along with cold temperatures at the beginning of the season hindered the drying of fields and caused the need for significant replanting. Dryer conditions in June brought opportunities to dry out fields to resume planting and other field activities. The dry weather continued allowing growers to catch up on replanting, apply fertilizer and cut hay. Excessive moisture throughout July created concerns in crop progress. August brought cooler drier conditions which helped stabilize crops.Ohio’s 2017 average corn yield was 177 bushels per acre, a new State record, up 18 bushels from last year. Producers harvested 3.13 million acres, compared to 3.30 million acres in 2016. Total State production of corn for grain was 554 million bushels, up 6 percent from the 2016 production of 525 million bushels. Acreage harvested for silage was 220,000 acres, an increase of 10,000 acres from 2016. The average silage yield increased by 4.5 tons from 2016 to 20 tons per acre. The Ohio corn harvest progressed slightly behind 2016 throughout the fall and was near completion by the end of November.Ohio’s average soybean yield for 2017 was estimated at 49.5 bushels per acre. The estimate is down 5 bushels per acre from the 2016 yield. Ohio producers planted 5.10 million acres and harvested 5.09 million acres. Planted and harvested acreage both increased by 250,000 acres from 2016. Soybean production is down 5 percent from 2016 to 252 million bushels.Alfalfa yields for Ohio averaged 3.20 tons per acre while all other hay averaged 2.10 tons per acre same as last year. Total hay production was 2.57 million tons.U.S. Corn for grain production is estimated at 14.6 billion bushels, down 4 percent from the 2016 estimate. The average yield in the United States is estimated at a record 176.6 bushels per acre, 2.0 bushels above the 2016 average yield of 174.6 bushels per acre. Area harvested for grain was estimated at 82.7 million acres, down 5 percent from the 2016 estimate.U.S. Soybean production in 2017 totaled a record 4.39 billion bushels, up 2 percent from 2016. The average yield per acre was estimated at 49.1 bushels, 2.9 bushels below the record yield in 2016. Harvested area was up 8 percent from 2016 to a record high 89.5 million acres.See the full report herelast_img read more

first_imgIn an area next to Ulm University, a short drive away from Stuttgart, Germany, is a 130 year old abandoned fort occupied by a few sheep, some goats and a donkey named Paul.Paul the DonkeyIt was here on June 19th that local geocachers hosted Das Ulmer FORT – the Mega Event in Germany for 2010 (GC20002).Six months ago the local geocaching community started preparations for the event. The fort had been neglected for 30 years, so an army of volunteers had to dig out the, err, deposits left by the local residents. The electricity had to be rewired, sharp protrusions had to be cut down and sanded, repairs had to be made, rooms had to be swept out, and trash had to be removed. This was necessary to make the location capable of holding over 300 campers who resided in the walls of the fort for the weekend.Elias, Bryan and I, the three founders of, had the privilege of attending the event this year.The founders of posing with geocaching attendees. Jeremy Irish (second from left), Bryan Roth (second from right) and Elias Alvord (far right)Bryan Roth and Elias Alvord with the Queen of Fort UlmIn the course of four hours we were able to mingle with the local geocachers, visit the various rooms and corridors in the Fort, meet the lovely Queen of Fort Ulm and celebrate a successful day with the organizers by eating a delicious Signal cake.Signal was not harmed and was, in fact, also in attendanceIt’s not often that we can visit geocachers in Europe, so we used this opportunity to listen to feedback about the web site. High on the list was having better ways to rate and search for geocaches by their ratings, which has been a common theme in the US. As geocaches increase in numbers it gets harder and harder to find the best ones.Although geocachers in the world have far more similarities than differences, there were also some notable observations in how Germans play the game.Signal waves to a fan1. Many German geocachers enjoy finding terrain level 5 caches, or what are locally called “T5” caches. Many of these caches are located in trees, requiring special climbing gear. The event even had FORTgeschrittene, a T5 event for finding these extreme geocaches. In addition to a ropes course, you could dive into a freezing pool to find a cache. Fortunately you could enter a portable sauna to warm up afterward. Sadly I didn’t pack a bathing suit.Bryan Roth (almost) diving into pool to retrieve a geocache.2. According to the “Flashlight Pope” at the event, there are quite a few caches that require a black light. This is so you can see writing that takes you to the next location. As a gift he gave each of us a black light to use on our next geocaching adventure.3. Multi-Caches are far more popular in Germany (and in Europe) than in the United States. Many more geocachers seem to be willing to spend days on one puzzle cache there. There may be a lot of multi-cache fans in the U.S. but the ratios of multis in Germany to U.S. caches are significantly higher.Aside from the event we were able to locate unique geocaches in Germany, such as a cache in the center of Berlin with over 3,000 finds (GCTA4W), and a cache in the spire of the world’s tallest church (GCJ7E0), located in the city of Ulm.If the locals plan on having a FORTsetzung (sequel) next year you don’t want to miss it. Thanks to everyone who planned one of the best geocaching events that we have ever attended. I hope to see you again next year!Share with your Friends:More SharePrint Related5 Lackeys. Approximately 7,000 geocachers. Moin moin!June 25, 2019In “Community” Co-Founder Celebrates Ten Years of Geo-LoveNovember 18, 2011In “Community”North American Edition of Geocacher of the Month: Comment NowMay 19, 2014In “Community” Mega-Event Cache Das Ulmer Fort GC20002last_img read more

first_imgHere are a few things you should consider before sending in your Canon 5D Mark IV for the company’s hand-installed C-Log upgrade.Cover image via Canon.While Canon’s 5D may be a staple of the industry, its newest iteration is certainly no longer the sole player in the prosumer digital camera game. At its high price point, some of its weaker traits and omissions suddenly become more apparent in the light of better bang-for-your-buck offerings like Panasonic’s GH5 and Sony’s a7S II. One of the most notable weaknesses is the Canon 5D Mark IV’s lack of a cinematic-friendly Log recording setting in-camera.However, to keep up with the competition, after the 5D Mark IV’s launch, Canon quickly followed up with a firmware update to add its C-Log format natively into your camera. Once in, it’s a simple on-and-off setting on your menu. But, there’s one catch: if you don’t specifically pick up an upgrade camera in-store, you have to send your camera to Canon, and they will add the update.While Canon is secretive about what they need to do to add a firmware update into your camera’s CPU, we do know the following information, which you should definitely consider before wrapping up your 5D Mark IV and sending it in.The $99 Upgrade FeeCanon’s 5D Mark IV is already on the more expensive end of the DSLR/mirrorless camera market. If you want C-Log footage to help with your color grading and dynamic capture, you’re going to need to add another $199 to the total price. If you don’t get the Log upgrade built in already, mailing in your camera will net you a $99 upgrade fee — plus shipping and handling (and insurance) to get your camera there.Service CentersImage by PRESSLAB.On their website, Canon mentions that they have service centers across the United States where you can send your camera for the Log upgrade. However, after talking to them on the phone, there are actually only three, so chances are there’s not a Canon service center a few streets over. There are centers in California, Virginia, and New Jersey. International options are similarly sparse.Canon Log DetailsHowever, if you are serious about getting the most out of your Canon 5D Mark IV, adding the Canon Log will definitely maximize your camera’s highlights, shadows, and image quality. Canon promises that their C-Log will add up to 800% more dynamic range (or 12 stops at ISO 400 or above) for 4K and Full HD recording.Look up TablesImage via Canon.Along with the Canon Log upgrade, Canon also offers two LUTs (Look up Tables) to let you view more corrected footage with gamma and color space when using external monitors. Canon Log 10 converts your files to ITU-R BT.709 for better conventional camcorder color space consistency, and the Wide DR LUT converts your video files to “Wide Dynamic Range gamma” for better preserving highlights and shadows.Shipping DetailsIf you do take the plunge, sending in your Canon 5D Mark IV isn’t too difficult. A Canon service expert can walk you through the steps on the phone, but it’s pretty straightforward. Secure your camera (by itself — no lenses, cards, or batteries included) in a shipping-safe box (Canon recommends three inches of packaging) along with your proof of purchase. If you’re worried about damage, you can always use package insurance through your shipping agency as well.Once your camera arrives, Canon will review it and send you an upgrade invoice. From there, you simply pay your fee, they make the firmware update, and then the camera comes back within 5-7 business days. Since the upgrade is through Canon, your manufacturer’s warranty will remain the same, and the camera should work exactly the same but with the C-Log option added to the menu.For more articles on the Canon 5D and other DSLR filmmaking tips and tricks, check out some of the resources below.Should You Upgrade the Canon 7D to the 5D Mark IV?Video Tutorial: Camera Tips for Stabilizing a Shot in PostThe Differences Between All-I and IPB CompressionHow to Shoot Practical Floating Text in Your VideoCanon 5D RAW & Magic Lantern Hack Rounduplast_img read more

first_imgCarroll says Newcastle deserved win over Man Utdby Paul Vegas18 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveAndy Carroll says Newcastle United deserved their win over Manchester United.Debutant Matty Longstaff scored the only goal of the game.Carroll said, “We’re buzzing! I think we deserved it – we were the better team throughout. You couldn’t write Matty’s goal. It’s his first Premier League game alongside his brother against Man United at home and he’s scored the winner. You can’t ask for any better and I’m absolutely delighted for him along with the rest of the lads.“The lads are buzzing for him. Matty’s a great lad who has worked hard. He’s deserved his start today and kept his head down. He’s grafted since I’ve been here and he deserved his chance and taken it with both hands.“I think it just shows what we have got in the squad. It was terrible last week and we’ve bounced straight back. We’ve worked very hard all week in training, and it has shown today as we dominated the game.“It’s important to show what we are about after last week. When you play a top team like (Manchester) United, it’s always going to be a tough game but when you haven’t won at home and you’re struggling, like last week, I think it’s a great win all round.“The morale in the dressing room right now is great and we are buzzing heading into the international break. It’s nice that we can celebrate for a couple of weeks and it eases the pressure on us. It’s good going into the international break with a win rather than a defeat!” About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your saylast_img read more