first_imgA friend called recently to ask about deer repellents. Are there chemicals you canapply to stop deer from browsing plants? Some of his clients had poor results.”Do those things really work?” he asked.Satisfactory answers to the problem of urban deer eating landscape plantings continueto elude wildlife managers. Can science solve this dilemma?Maybe a magic answer is out there. In the meantime, there is a way to stop deer fromeating our plants. It means removing deer, mostly by having licensed wildlife expertsshoot them after dark with spotlights and precision rifles.You mean deer hunting along suburban streets?Yep.Georgians have proved that shooting works. We got rid of deer from most of the statewith guns. Then, after a spell of deerlessness, we restocked them, beginning in the 1950s.Now some neighborhoods are voting to use guns to remove unwanted deer.Finding consensus is the key. It’s harder than removing the deer. Often theconsensus-building process goes like this.First, some folks get upset with deer damage to their yards and gardens. The desire todo something grows. Eventually the neighborhood calls in wildlife management professionalswho explain the facts.I see two extremes: live with a level of deer damage others see as unacceptable, orremove deer to bring the population down to an acceptable level. And that means killingthem. Some folks find that unacceptable.Next comes a time of arguing and disagreement. This goes on for a year or two, or more.It becomes clear that the problem lies not in the lack of technology, but in a clash ofattitudes and values. Some people are already adjusted to the idea of killing. Others havevalues that prohibit it.Sociology research helps us understand such clashes. Steve Kellert of Yale Universityhas done landmark research on American attitudes toward wildlife. He describes 10attitudes. Here are two:Moralistic — primary concern for the right and wrong treatment of animals. Humanistic– primary interest and strong affection for individual animals, mainly pets.If you value one of these attitudes, you will almost certainly score high in the other.Here are two more:Utilitarian — primary concern for the practical and material value of animals.Dominionistic — primary interest in the mastery and control of animals.We don’t usually get our values by thinking. We get them from our environment. Acollege-educated woman, age 25, who grew up in the suburbs is likely to have a differentattitude toward deer than a 50-year old man raised on a farm.Our age, sex, profession, education and other variables greatly affect our attitudesand values. Self-interest plays a major role, and it often results in change.Muddling through public and private meetings on the way to consensus involvesstakeholders like biologists, animal rights folks, gardeners, politicians and others.If you’re caught up in such a controversy, a good strategy is to keep your sense ofhumor, relax and enjoy the show. After three to five years of acrimonious debate,consensus emerges.Some folks decide to have licensed experts come in to shoot deer. Once they do, a swiftreduction in deer numbers, and relief for gardeners, is on the way.Not everybody is happy, of course.The alternative is to live with the deer and let them decide which plants will grow.And that’s OK, too. Still, not everybody will be happy.The main point is that the decisions are political. The technological solutions, suchas they are, are nothing new.last_img read more


first_imgJennifer Krueger slaps a base hit against Notre Dame. Krueger and UW will begin play this weekend in Arizona.[/media-credit]While most students at the University of Wisconsin are forced to deal with the cold weather, the UW softball team begins its spring schedule this weekend in Tempe, Ariz., at the ASU Kajikawa Classic.With four of the six games against teams that qualified for the NCAA Tournament last season, it will be a good test to see how Wisconsin measures up against elite competition right off the bat.“These are some of our harder games of the entire year actually,” senior pitcher Letty Olivarez said. “This is our chance to go to bigger schools, like Arizona for instance, and play good schools that go out there.“It’s always nice to be in warm weather, too, so we’re real excited to get there,” she added.Among the participants in the tournament will be 2009 NCAA Champion and top-ranked Washington as well as No. 4 Arizona and No. 7 Arizona State, both of which were 2009 Women’s College World Series participants.Despite the high level of play on their opening weekend, the Badgers feel they are definitely ready for the challenge.“We’ve been practicing for weeks upon weeks, and we’re all just itching to get out there,” junior centerfielder Jennifer Krueger said. “To play on a real field, with real dirt and real grass, and get off of the turf.”Following its first tournament, the team will also be traveling to tournaments at Miami (FL), Santa Barbara, San Diego and Stillwater, Oklahoma, then beginning regular game play and conference action.When asked whether they get a chance to relax and enjoy the warmer weather away from Wisconsin at these tournaments, Olivarez noted the opportunities were there, but limited.“We get to spend some nights with our families, but for the most part, it’s just softball,” she said. “But it’s really not a bad thing; as long as we’re in warm weather and getting away from freezing here.”The positive outlook carries through to the rest of the season as well.“I’m excited, we have a bunch of new girls this year, and we’re all getting along really well,” Olivarez said. “We are excited to go out and play hard, and I’m just excited to see what we’re going to bring out there.”The Badgers will feature a very young lineup this season, with freshmen accounting for half of the roster. Infielder Katie Soderberg and Olivarez, the Badgers’ most experienced pitcher, are the team’s lone seniors this season and will play large roles in leading Wisconsin. Still, they don’t feel the team’s youth is a weakness.“Honestly, there aren’t any disadvantages,” Olivarez said. “The girls are coming in ready to play, and they’re even pushing the older girls. I feel like we’ve all gotten along better and that everyone has benefited from it.”“Being a freshman, I would say it makes it easier for the older girls too,” freshman third baseman Shannel Blackshear said. “We’re all really passionate about playing and we want to compete with each other. I think it makes the older girls step up, and we want to step up with them too.”When asked about the challenges of handling the rigor of a more than 50-game season, Krueger said the team is ready for it.“All the work that we have done in the offseason is preparing us to play 60 games,” she said. “We’re in shape, and strong. The practices during the season are more just getting us ready for the next game.”Olivarez echoed her teammate’s sentiments.“We’ve been working at it ever since we’ve gotten back to school,” Olivarez said. “We’ve been working hard in the weight room and working hard on the field five to six days a week. We’ve gotten stronger, and I feel that our pitching has improved.“And now I feel like we actually have girls this year that are able to compete with each other, and compete for their own spot.”According to Krueger, the team has a much better outlook on the season than in years past, which she believes could also help them improve on back-to-back 15-40 seasons.“I feel like we’re all committed to get the job done, too,” she said. “This year we’re all so positive, and I think we have a better atmosphere than we’ve had in years past.”Big Ten play is still months away, but it’s never too soon to look at the Badgers’ chances in the conference. In response to who might be the toughest teams in the Big Ten this season, Olivarez quickly replied that they had to “just prepare for everyone.”Sounding more like a senior than a freshman, Blackshear responded with a similar answer.“In college softball, I don’t think any team is easy,” she said. “No matter who you play, you have to come ready. Anybody can beat you on any day.”last_img read more


first_imgTrending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles01:00Chief Justice Peralta on upcoming UAAP game: UP has no match against UST00:50Trending Articles02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Report: Disney dropping the ‘Fox’ from movie studio names Paras, who is part of the national team program, first committed to UCLA after he graduated from Cathedral High, but wasn’t able to suit up for the Bruins after issues regarding his grades.He then transferred to Creighton, where he was able to play for one season, after which he moved to Cal State Northridge to join head coach Reggie Theus.Paras spent his first year with the Matadors as a red-shirt in obedience to NCAA transfer rules, but he eventually left after Theus got fired from the team.Paras, though, won’t need to spend a one-year residency period with the Fighting Maroons and he will be joined by Gilas teammate Ricci Rivero and former University of Perpetual Help standout Bright Akhuetie in Season 82.“With the addition of Bright and Ricci, the team has gotten better,” said UP head coach Bo Perasol whose Fighting Maroons finished at fifth seed for Season 80 with a 6-8 record.ADVERTISEMENT Volcano watch: Island fissures steaming, lake water receding In fight vs corruption, Duterte now points to Ayala, MVP companies as ‘big fish’ MOST READ Kobe Paras is now a Fighting Maroon. Photo from UP MBT (@upmbt) Twitter accountOnce hailed as the great Philippine basketball NBA hope, Kobe Paras found little playing time to back up the hype and bounced around three schools in the United States.The athletic, high-leaping wingman has found a home, finally, half a world away in a school that once revered his father.ADVERTISEMENT LATEST STORIES Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. “That being said, talent is talent, and we are fortunate to have a talent like Kobe on board,” added Perasol. “Winning, as experience has shown us, takes more than talent. We have to get everyone on the same page and to play the right way, and that is what we’ll be working on in the months to come.”Aside from father Benjie, brother Andrei also donned the UP uniform.“I am looking forward to the challenge of helping the Fighting Maroons become a better basketball team, and the challenge of helping myself become a better student,” said Paras.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Palace OKs total deployment ban on Kuwait OFWs Putin’s, Xi’s ruler-for-life moves pose challenges to West View comments Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew Paras will join University of the Philippines for the UAAP season 82, hooking up with a program where his bloodline is legendary—Kobe’s father, Philippine basketball legend Benjie, powered the Maroons to their last UAAP crown in 1986.It’s a drought Maroons fans hope will end in a full circle, now that the younger Paras has joined the team after unimpressive stints in the US NCAA with University of California at Los Angeles, Creighton, and Cal State Northridge.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folkSPORTSTim Cone still willing to coach Gilas but admits decision won’t be ‘simple yes or no’In a statement from nowheretogobutUP, Paras said the country’s premier state university boasts not just a stable athletic program but has been the top educational institution in the country, making his choice easy.“University of the Philippines is the most respected educational institution in the country,” said Paras, 20. “The attraction of UP is not just its basketball program, which just gets better every year, but the world-class education it is known for.” Nadine Lustre’s phone stolen in Brazil American Salah surges ahead by two strokes Trump assembles a made-for-TV impeachment defense team ‘High crimes and misdemeanors’: Trump impeachment trial beginslast_img read more


first_img AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREBasketball roundup: Sierra Canyon, Birmingham set to face off in tournament quarterfinals160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! WASHINGTON (AP) – The Pentagon on Tuesday released the first video images of American Airlines Flight 77 crashing into the military headquarters building and killing 189 people in the Sept. 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. The images, recorded by Pentagon security cameras outside the building, were made public in response to a December 2004 Freedom of Information Act request by Judicial Watch, a public interest group. Some still images from the video had previously been leaked and publicly circulated, but this was the first official release. The airplane is a thin white blur on the video as it slams into the Pentagon at ground level. Almost instantly a white flash and a huge orange fireball appear on the video, followed by a tower of gray-black smoke. One of the videos shows a Pentagon police car driving in the direction of the impact point shortly after the plane hit. Traveling at an estimated 350 mph, the hijacked American Airlines plane plowed into the southwest side of the Pentagon at 9:38 a.m. EDT, shortly after two other hijacked airlines were flown into the twin towers at the World Trade Center in New York. The attack set off fires in a portion of the Pentagon and killed 125 people inside, in addition to the 59 passengers and crew and the five men who hijacked the plane at Dulles International Airport. The Pentagon had previously refused to release the videos, saying they had been provided to the Justice Department as evidence in any criminal proceedings. “We fought hard to obtain this video because we felt that it was very important to complete the public record with respect to the terrorist attacks of September 11,” said Tom Fitton, president of Judicial Watch. Cheryl Irwin, a Pentagon spokeswoman, said families of the victims of the Pentagon attack were not consulted before the videos were released on the Pentagon’s Web site.last_img read more


first_imgMore than 190 children took part in St Eunan’s GAA Cul Camp in Letterkenny this week.Donegal players Hugh Mc Fadden, Jamie Brennan, Caolán Ward, Éamonn Doherty and Shaun Patton were in attendance to make sure all the children were getting the best of coaching help.All the children will receive their kits tomorrow (Friday.) This was the largest group ever at a GAA Cul Camp at St Eunans.Many thanks to Geraldine Diver for the pictures. Record numbers at St Eunans’ GAA Cul Camp – Pic Special was last modified: August 1st, 2019 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Cul CampGAAletterkennySt Eunanslast_img read more


first_imgHere is this week’s ReadWriteWeb events guide. Remember to download the calendar in iCal format or import it into your Google Calendar. You can also import individual events using the link beside each entry. This events guide is a weekly feature here on ReadWriteWeb. We publish it every weekend, as good a time as any to review your conference plans.Know of an event taking place that should appear here? Let us know in the comments below or contact us.10 September 2009: San FranciscoMobilize 09GigaOM’s Mobile Web Conference is a one-day conference that brings together thought leaders of the next generation mobile Web for talk, demonstrations, and debate.Participants will examine what it means to have wireless broadband speeds at the Gigabit scale and how the explosion of platforms creates new opportunities beyond the traditional handset for entrepreneurs, investors, and consumers. Over 50 speakers and 500 delegates will be there.ReadWriteWeb readers save $150 on the regular ticket price up until August 14th. Register here with the code “RWW”.21 – 23 September: San Diego, CaliforniaDEMOfall 09 ConferenceDEMOfall 09 promises to showcase the most comprehensive portfolio of credible emerging technologies, vetted by VentureBeat founder Matt Marshall and leading technology analyst Chris Shipley. Alpha Pitch, a new DEMO program, puts you in front of the most promising entrepreneurs with products in the alpha, prototype, and development stages of their life cycles. These are pre-revenue companies that have no more than one round of seed funding and are ready for your investment dollars.DEMO is the launch pad of emerging technology and a true market performer for visionary investors, entrepreneurs, and industry influencers alike.ReadWriteWeb readers pay only $1996. Save $500 off the standard fee by registering before August 15th.22 September 2009: LondonRealising the Benefits of Web 2.0 in Financial ServicesIf you are responsible for marketing, compliance, e-business, customer communications, or internal communications at a financial institution, you won’t want to miss this series of events:The UK’s first conference focusing specifically on Web 2.0 in Financial Services:What is happening now? Current applications and experiences of social media in the financial services market;Hear how social networking is changing the approach of firms to marketing, PR, and customer interaction;Explore opportunities to enhance internal communications, process improvement, and compliance;Understand the developing legal and regulatory framework for Web 2.0;Identify the next steps for social media in financial services.ReadWriteWeb readers get a 20% discount. Use the code KM6298RRWEB.22 – 23 September 2009: SingaporeSocial Networking World Forum — AsiaThis two-day conference hosted by the Social Networking World Forum – Asia features key speakers from social networking publishers, advertising agencies, industry analysts, software developers and equipment manufacturers, pay-TV and network service providers, mobile operators, and more. 1 – 3 December 2009: London, EnglandOnline Information & IMS 2009Online Information and IMS together create the largest event dedicated to the information industry. Consisting of an exhibition delivering over 9,000 visitors from 70 countries, a conference and a show-floor seminar program, the event provides an annual meeting place for the global information industry.Online Information is once again set to play host to thousands of information professionals, information end-users and publishers from around the globe, meeting suppliers of online content, e-publishing, and library management solutions. IMS provides a forum for IT, business, and information management professionals to find unlimited, relevant advice, educational content and compare solutions under one roof. Attend IMS and meet suppliers of content management, search solutions, and Web 2.0 technologies.15 – 16 March 2010: London, England2nd Annual Social Networking World Forum — LondonThe 2nd Annual Social Networking World Forum takes place at the Olympia Conference Centre in London. The two-day event features four dedicated conference streams: Download this entire events calendar in iCal format. 23 October 2009: Durham, North CarolinaThe Social Media Business ForumThe Social Media Business Forum will feature national and local speakers from marketing companies, technology companies, and social networks discussing ways in which business communications have changed because of social media. Sessions will look at internal and external communications methods for both B2B and B2C companies and provide actionable takeaway items for attendees to immediately implement in their businesses. The forum targets business owners, executives, business communicators, key organizational stake holders, and anyone interested in gaining practical knowledge about social media.Early bird registration is $125 until September 18, and $250 thereafter.4 – 5 November 2009: Raleigh, North CarolinaInternet Summit 2009Internet Summit ’09 will feature over 75 speakers, including representatives of major Internet brands such as Twitter, Pandora, Google, Salesforce.com, Digg, Technorati, CBS Interactive, Huffington Post, Blogger, Tree.com, and many more.Topics will include social media, blogging, real time, mobile, video, search, online advertising, e-commerce, analytics, the cloud, and more.Join over 1200 entrepreneurs, senior marketers, and executives in the conversation about the future of the industry and how to capitalize on the shifting dynamics of the Internet and tap into its unlimited business potential.9 – 10 November 2009: Santa Clara, CaliforniaSocial Networking World Forum — CaliforniaThis event taking place at the Santa Clara Convention Center actually consists of three conferences: two days dedicated to social networking, one day dedicated to enterprise social media, and one day dedicated to social TV. Key speakers include social networking publishers, advertising agencies, industry analysts, software developers and equipment manufacturers, pay-TV and network service providers, mobile operators, and more. 22 – 23 September 2009: Melbourne, AustraliaMarketing Now!On September 22-23 a movement of highly engaged, passionate thought leaders and professionals will gather in Melbourne to demonstrate the power of social media for business today. Marketing Now! brings together the best of the best in new marketing innovation in two intensive days of interactive training designed to empower a new generation of change agents and business leaders. Marketing Now! will change the way you think about communications by equipping you with the tools and insight to foster advocacy and community for your business.Follow Marketing Now on Twitter for conference updates.30 September 2009: on TwitterTwittamentaryUpdate: Call for submissions of stories and videos is now open. In this documentary, filmmaker Tan Siok Siok peels away the hype and explores the human dimensions of how lives connect and intersect, and then are affected and changed, as result of encounters on Twitter.Twittamentary is created in the open spirit of the Web. Twitter users are invite to contribute ideas and videos to the film. When the film is completed, it will be released online under a creative commons license. In other words, you are both the contributor and the audience.The 24-hour storytelling event on 30 September 2009 shares the videos submitted up till then in a round-the-clock marathon in which participants get to watch the videos online, rate and comment on them, and tweet about them.8 October 2009: San DiegoMobile Application Stores conferenceAs a partner seminar of Intenational CTIA WIRELESS I.T. and Entertainment, the Mobile Application Stores conference will focus on the tremendous opportunities in the mobile apps stores eco-system. The event is designed to give a complete understanding of how to capitalize on this exploding market.Participants will discuss strategy and deployment in application stores such as Apple (iPhone), Google (Android), RIM (Blackberry), Nokia (Ovi), Palm Pre, and Microsoft, as well as other emerging application stores. To learn more, visit www.mobileapplicationstores.com or write to [email protected] October 2009: London, EnglandCloud Computing World ForumThe Cloud Computing World Forum is the perfect event for professionals to learn and discuss the future development and integration of cloud services. This one-day conference will provide a focused platform for the global cloud computing industry.The Cloud Computing World Forum is the place to meet all the key decision makers from all of the cloud service providers in one place. Show highlights include:Hear from leading case studies on how to integrate cloud computing into working practices,Learn from the key players offering services in the cloud,Benefit from pre-show online meeting planner,Evening networking reception. andrew lobo 11 – 12 November 2009: Denver, ColoradoDefrag 2009 ConferenceAs online data is growing and fragmenting at an exponential pace, individuals, groups and organizations are struggling to discover, assemble, organize, act on and gather feedback from that data. In the largest sense, we’re all looking to augment the pace at which we achieve insights on raw data — to accelerate the “A-ha” moment.Defrag explores the intersection of topics like:Business intelligenceBusiness process managementSocial computing and analyticsNext-level discoveryEnterprise 2.0Next-gen emailThe semantic Web Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Social Networking World ForumEnterprise social mediaSocial TV World ForumMobile Social Networking ForumThe event features key speakers from global brands, organizations, social networking publishers and developers, pioneering social media leaders, top agencies, content producers, and more.Full workshop program within exhibition areaEvening networking receptionPre-show online meeting planner for delegatesFree pass for exhibition only 10 – 13 November 2009: Las VegasPubCon VegasPubCon Las Vegas is a multi-track educational conference hosted by SearchEngineWorld & WebmasterWorld. PubCon events are for thought leaders and professionals in search engine and Internet marketing to gather and to share best practices in the design, development, promotion and marketing of their Internet businesses and brands. PubCon London 2009 is a social networking event. Tags:#Events Guide#web A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Related Posts Joint exhibition combining social networking and enterprise social media formatsPre-show online meeting planner for delegatesDiscount for early booking (expires September 25th)Free pass for exhibition only Joint exhibition combining social networking and mobile social networking formatsEvening networking receptionDiscount for early booking (expires August 21st)Free pass for exhibition onlylast_img read more


first_imgStudy: Green Building Codes Don’t Save EnergyThe Jevons Paradox Freakonomics Podcast: How Efficient Is Energy Efficiency? Steven Nadel is the executive director of the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. This post originally appeared on the ACEEE blog. GBA posted a news story about the original study in January.ACEEE is a strong supporter of analyzing energy efficiency programs in order to see what they have accomplished and to learn lessons so we can do even better. It was thus with interest that we reviewed How Much Energy Do Building Energy Codes Really Save? Evidence from California by Arik Levinson.In this paper Levinson conducts several analyses and concludes that “there is no evidence that homes constructed since California instituted its building energy codes use less electricity today than homes built before the codes came into effect.”On the surface his conclusions about the efficacy of building codes are very different from other recent analyses, so we took a deeper look.Building energy codes in the United Sates primarily address energy used for space heating and air conditioning, with some impact on water heating energy use. In addition, commercial building codes also address lighting in a substantial way. Therefore, any analysis of the effect of codes needs to look at energy consumption for these end uses. Study should focus on natural gasA good analysis of the impact of California’s building codes should focus on natural gas use. Levinson does do one analysis of natural gas use, finding that homes built since California’s building energy code began use less natural gas than earlier homes.However he then dismisses this finding since the trend started before the building codes took effect. He presents no evidence that prior trends would have continued, and therefore his claim that building codes had no effect is speculation.Finally, if the objective is to examine all building codes and not just some codes, then it’s also important to look at commercial buildings. According to an analysis by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, nationwide about 69 percent of building code savings in 2012 were in the commercial sector and only 31 percent in the residential sector.More than 80 percent of the commercial savings were in electricity.Bottom line: Levinson is on the wrong path if he’s trying to see the impacts of building codes. If he wants to see the forest — the impacts of codes or their absence — he needs to understand the trees. He needs to look where the impacts are supposed to be, and in California this means residential natural gas and commercial building electricity use. California’s mild climate is a factorThe fact is, though, that California has a mild climate, and, according to a recent analysis by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), only 4 percent of California home energy use is for air conditioning. Using EIA figures we can go on to calculate that air conditioning represents about 10 percent of home electricity (as opposed to energy) use. If we make a ballpark estimate that codes reduce air conditioning electricity use by 30 percent, Levinson is looking for 3 percent savings in the data.Furthermore, a majority of the savings in air conditioning energy use is probably due to air conditioner efficiency standards that also apply to replacement equipment in existing homes. Since Levinson is comparing new and existing homes, of the 3 percent savings mentioned above, perhaps 2 percent are also being achieved in his comparison group of existing homes.Thus, he’s looking for a 1 percent savings effect in new homes. It’s very difficult to find such a small effect in a statistical analysis; with an effect that small, it would be more surprising to see such savings show up in a statistical analysis than if the savings did not show up.In addition, it should be noted that the rising saturation of electronic gadgets in U.S. homes may be affecting new home energy use, a factor Levinson does not examine but that perhaps explains some of the increasing energy use he found in new homes.center_img Energy use in CaliforniaLevinson is examining California, so we should start by looking at how California heats and cools its buildings and water. The California Energy Commission had a consultant prepare a report looking at residential appliance saturations in 2009. They found that 93 percent of California homes are heated with gas and only 5 percent are heated with electricity. Likewise they found that 87 percent of homes have gas water heating and only 7 percent use electricity for water heating. Central air conditioners are used in 49 percent of homes, with an additional 15 percent using room air conditioners.California added a limited lighting provision to its 2008 residential code, but the savings are too recent and too small to show up in a long-term analysis.Based on this information, an analysis of California residential building codes should concentrate on natural gas use and only secondarily on electricity. Unfortunately, this is the opposite of what Levinson does. Most of his analysis is on electricity use, and he generally excludes homes with electric space or water heat. He does so because the saturation of electric space heat has been changing over time, and according to Levinson, therefore doesn’t fit well into his time series analysis. Thus his analysis looks for the effect of building codes on air conditioning energy use. RELATED ARTICLES last_img read more


first_imgA group of architecture students from Prairie View A&M University has won top honors in this year’s Department of Energy Race to Zero student competition with an affordable home designed for a Houston, Texas, neighborhood.The team of eight students, led by adjunct assistant professor Shelly Pottorf, are from the A&M School of Architecture and were among 31 collegiate groups representing 23 institutions from around the country. Results were announced earlier this month at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. In its report on the project, the group said it designed the three-bedroom, 1,567-square-foot home to fit in an urban neighborhood called Independence Heights, an area with narrow lots and a 40% vacancy rate. Their idea was to develop clusters of single-family homes into “pocket communities” with shared open space.The lot the group selected for development is a 15-minute drive from downtown Houston, but only a 1-minute walk to a public bus stop, and within biking distance to a light rail stop. It’s also next to a community garden.“Community residents expressed a desire for the concept to be inspired by the modest efficiencies of a ‘shotgun’ vernacular home,” the project report says. “A home style native to the area, the ‘shotgun’ was designed to allow for natural ventilation and fit the long narrow lots. Design features include a gable roof, rectilinear floor plan with side circulation, front deck, and wood cladding.“Adding the second level to the ‘shotgun’ home increases the livable area for contemporary families,” the report continues. “This provides a home design for families who have moved away an opportunity to return to the neighborhood without giving up living space they may have found in other suburban areas, further outside of downtown Houston, jobs, and schools.”Because the neighborhood is in Houston’s 100-year flood plain, and has experienced severe flooding in the past few years, the house sits 4 feet above the ground on concrete piers. The climate is hot and humid. Affordability was importantDesigners had high goals: meet PHIUS+2015 requirements and make the house net-zero ready. But costs counted, too.“Independence Heights is home to an aging population; the younger generation has moved out due to lack of new housing, dilapidated homes, and high vacancy rate; 41.6% of the population in Independence Heights lives below the poverty line, as opposed to the 23.8% in Houston,” the student report says.The house was designed with a $160,713 purchase price in mind. That would keep the percentage of household income spent on housing — including principal, interest, property tax, and insurance — at 37% of the Texas average mean income, or $1,572 per month. Getting to net zeroTo reach net-zero energy and PHIUS+2015 performance in Houston, designers included radiant barriers in both the roof and wall assemblies. A standing-seam metal roof is installed over a 3/4-inch ventilation cavity. In the walls, foil-faced insulation faces a 3/4-inch cavity. A rainscreen assembly further reduces heat gain.The project has a HERS Index score of 36 without photovoltaic panels, with estimated electricity consumption of 6,872 kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year. With a 6.3 kW PV array, the HERS Index drops to -9. Energy costs were modeled at $756 per year.Here are some other building features used in energy modeling:Insulation: In the roof, there’s R-38 of cavity insulation plus R-9 of continuous insulation on top of the roof deck. Wall insulation consists of R-21 in cavity insulation plus another R-9 over the sheathing. The floor is insulated to the same level as the exterior walls.Ventilation: Ultimate Air energy-recovery ventilator.Windows: Double-pane Passivhaus-certified windows with a solar heat gain coefficient of 0.2 and a whole-window U-factor of 0.15.Domestic hot water: 80-gallon heat-pump water heater.Airtightness: 0.6 air changes per hour at a pressure difference of 50 pascals.Space conditioning: SEER 23 minisplit air-source heat pump.Team members included Sean Benson, Alexis Borman, Chris Brown, Desirae Price, Graciela Tendilla, Taylor Hudson, Devonta Magee, and Yasmine Parker. All are candidates for a bachelor of science degree in architecture this year or next.last_img read more